We need to know H.264 before talking about H.265. H.264 is one of the video codec technology standards named after the H.26x series by ITU-T. There are two international organizations that develop video codec technology. One is the "International Telecommunication Union (ITU-T)", which formulates standards such as H.261, H.263 and H.263+. The other is the "International Organization for Standardization (ISO)", which develops standards such as MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4. H.264 is a new digital video coding standard jointly developed by the Joint Video Team (JVT) of the two organizations, so it is both H.264 of ITU-T and ISO/IEC MPEG-4 Advanced Video Coding (AVC). Also, it will be part 10 of the MPEG-4 standard. Therefore, MPEG-4 AVC, MPEG-4 Part 10, and ISO/IEC 14496-10 all refer to H.264.
监控专网：Monitoring Private Network
H.265 is a new video coding standard developed by ITU-T VCEG after H.264. The H.265 standard is developed around the existing video coding standard H.264, retaining some of the original technologies while improving some related technologies. The new technology uses advanced techniques to improve the relationship between code stream, encoding quality, delay and algorithm complexity to achieve optimal settings. The specific research contents include improving compression efficiency, improving robustness and error recovery capability, reducing real-time delay, reducing channel acquisition time and random access delay, and reducing complexity. Due to algorithm optimization, H264 can achieve standard definition digital image transmission at a speed of less than 1Mbps. H265 can transmit 720P (resolution 1280*720) ordinary high-definition audio and video transmission with a transmission speed of 1~2Mbps. H.265 is designed to transmit higher-quality network video with limited bandwidth, requiring half the original bandwidth to play the same quality video. It also means that smartphones, tablets, and other mobile devices will be able to stream 1080p full HD video directly online. The H.265 standard also supports both 4K (4096×2160) and 8K (8192×4320) ultra HD video. Therefore, it can be said that the H.265 standard allows network video to keep up with the "high resolution" of the display.
Surveillance Video and Audio Coding (SVAC) is the first technical standard designed to address the unique requirements of the security surveillance industry and is particularly important for establishing public security and crime prevention system in China. The SVAC standard is officially implemented on May 1, 2011, and it is the preferred protocol for government contracts for all providers involved in the security surveillance industry.
The promotion of the SVAC standard contributes to the sustainable and large-scale development of the security industry, focusing on solving three major problems:
1. The upstream core technology of the security industry has been monopolized by foreign manufacturers for a long time, and the high-end value chain has been seized by foreign companies;
2. National security issues;
3. Difficulties in video surveillance image information interconnection and sharing, expansion and maintenance. Currently, there are no audio and video codec standards specifically for security video surveillance applications in China and internationally. Therefore, it is of great significance for the construction of social security prevention and control systems to develop audio and video coding and decoding standards with China's independent intellectual property rights that meet the needs of security video surveillance applications. As the basic standard of the video surveillance system, SVAC will provide strong technical support for the construction of a comprehensive prevention and control system for urban social security. On the one hand, it can solve difficulties in the system to interconnect due to the non-uniform audio and video coding and decoding standards in the current video surveillance system. On the other hand, it can provide suitable solutions for special security applications to solve the problem that the current video surveillance field can only use radio and television standards but cannot meet the special needs of security. In addition, the audio and video codec standards specially used in the security field are still blank in the world, and the development of the SVAC standard is conducive to achieving a breakthrough in the security field to international standards.
GB/T28181-2011 "Technical Requirements for Information Transmission, Exchange, and Control of Security Video Surveillance Networking System" is proposed by the Science and Technology Information of the Ministry of Public Security, and jointly drafted by the National Security Alarm System Standardization Technical Committee (SAC/TC100) and other units of the Ministry of Public Security. The standard specifies the interconnection structure and communication protocol structure of information transmission, exchange and control in urban monitoring and alarm networking system, the basic requirements and security requirements of transmission, exchange and control, as well as the technical requirements of control, transmission process and protocol interface. It is applicable to the scheme design, system testing, acceptance and related equipment development and production of the security monitoring and alarm networking system, and other information systems can be used for reference. Also, it was officially released and implemented on June 1, 2012, and has been widely promoted and applied in the construction of safe city projects across China.
GB/T28181-2011 standard has received positive responses from major video surveillance manufacturers since its release. By the end of 2012, nearly 100 video surveillance companies had been certified by the First Research Institute of The Ministry of Public Security of PRC and the Third Research Institute of The Ministry of Public Security of PRC.
ONVIF is committed to promoting the application of network video in the security market through a global open interface standard that ensures the interoperability of network video products produced by different manufacturers. In November 2008, the forum officially released the first version of ONVIF specification, ONVIF Core Specification 1.0. The division of labor in the industry chain will become increasingly detailed with the network application of the video surveillance network. There are different manufacturers that specialize in cameras, DVS, and platforms, and they are integrated by integrators and get end customers. This industrial cooperation model has urgently required the industry to provide an increasingly standardized interface platform.
Therefore, in May 2008, Axis, Bosch and Sony announced to jointly establish an international open network video product standard network interface development forum, named Open Network Video Interface Forum (ONVIF). Also, they jointly formulated open industry standards based on the principles of transparency and openness. The ONVIF standard will define a common protocol for the exchange of information between network video devices, including device discovery, real-time video, audio, metadata, and control information. Therefore, end-users, integrators, consultants and manufacturers can easily benefit from various possibilities that network video products can offer, and they can obtain cost-effective and flexible solutions, as well as opportunities for market expansion with lower risks.
Physical Security Interoperability Alliance (PSIA) is a global alliance composed of more than 65 security manufacturers and system integrators. It is established in August 2008 to drive interoperability of security devices and systems across the security ecosystem and later IP capabilities. The alliance aims to create a standardized interface for hardware and software platforms for physical security systems. Also, it is committed to making different security systems based on IP networks compatible.
PSIA promotes the development of open specifications covering network physical security technologies in all industry areas including video, storage, analytics, intrusion and access control. PSIA supports license-free standards and specifications, which are reviewed openly and collaboratively for the industry as a whole. There are five effective working groups, including IP video, video analytics, recording and content management, control areas and systems, that developed these specifications. PSIA specifications are backward compatible. Therefore, even if they are enhanced, devices compatible with older versions will continue to work with those that meet the specifications of the new version. Custom interfaces and scripts connected to security systems often need to be adjusted, such as operating system or application software upgrades even within a single system. The PSIA specification is impacted by these activities, so it can eliminate the traditional cost of maintaining custom interfaces and coding.
H.265 is an encoding compression technology like H.26x/MPEG-x AVC, and it has a specific high-efficiency coding method.
Surveillance Video and Audio Coding (SVAC) is a nationally standardized coding method, a technical standard protocol for the unique requirements of the security monitoring industry, as well as a coding technology.
GB/T28181 is a national standard entitled "Technical Requirements for Information Transmission, Exchange, and Control of Security Video Surveillance Networking System".
ONVIF and PSIA are universal international interface protocols and standards.